National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix

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Snappy Stems

Grade Level(s)

K - 2

Estimated Time

60 minutes

Purpose

In this lesson students will learn the function of plant stems and identify edible stems belonging to certain plants.

Materials

Motivator:

  • Plant Cards

Activity 1:

  • Butcher paper or chart paper
  • Markers
  • Jar
  • Water
  • Food coloring
  • Celery stalks
  • Writing Worksheet

Activity 2:

  • Tops and Bottoms written by Janet Stevens

Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)

Vocabulary

agriculture: the science and business of growing crops and raising livestock

commodity: fruits, vegetables, nuts, or grains, as a unit that are bought or sold

edible: something that can be eaten

farm: a piece of land where crops or animals are raised

phloem: specialized plant cells that transport food throughout the plant

stem: the main supportive part of a plant; part of the transport system carrying water from the roots and food produced during photosynthesis to other parts of the plant

tuber: the short, thickened, fleshy part of an underground stem, which can grow new shoots

xylem: specialized plant cells that transport water throughout the plant

Did you know? (Ag Facts)

  • A cactus can hold a lot of water in its stems. Even though this liquid is not pure water it was known to save people's lives when traveling through the desert.1
  • We normally call the sharp spikes located on the stem of a rose bush "thorns." However, these sometimes painful spikes are technically called "prickles."2
  • Plants with stems are called vascular plants because they contain tissue that move water and minerals from the roots to the leaves to help it grow.3

Background Agricultural Connections

This lesson is part of a series called, Edible Plant Parts. These lessons allow students and teachers to examine the six basic plant parts—roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds—in a unique way. Through hands-on activities, students will learn about the different plant parts, as well as how to include fruits and vegetables into their daily meals as part of a healthy diet. Students will also learn about agriculture and the people who produce our food. The remaining lessons can be found at the following links:

In this lesson, students will be fascinated to learn that when broccoli or cauliflower is served at dinner, they are eating stems. Stems typically support the leaves, flowers, and fruit of a plant. They also connect the leaves to the roots for transporting water and minerals through the phloem and xylem. Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are the only green plants that do not have stems. For this lesson student's experience for eating vegetables that live and grow above and underground would be required for helping them gain an understanding for the functions and varieties of stems. 

Students will also learn about agriculture which is the business of growing crops and raising livestock by people commonly called farmers. This type of work is normally done on a piece of land called a farm. Commodities such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, and  various types of animal meat are the edible food products grown and raised by farmers. These food products are harvested, processed, packaged, and delivered to grocery stores, farmer's markets, and restaurants for us to enjoy.

Stems can be very short, as in lettuce plants, or very tall, as in the trunks of redwood trees. Stems can be hollow, as in daffodils, or somewhat solid, as in tree trunks. Food produced in leaves through photosynthesis travels down the stems through the phloem to the roots and fruits, while water and nutrients absorbed by the roots travel up the stems through the xylem to other parts of the plant. Edible stems include asparagus, bamboo shoots, and sugar cane. Celery and rhubarb are commonly classified as a stem we eat, however, this is a misconception. Scientifically speaking, celery and rhubarb are actually petioles or leaf stalks, and are classified as a leaf. Other edible plant stems include those in broccoli and cauliflower, even though they are not necessarily grown for their stems. All varieties of potatoes are special stems, called tubers, that grow underground. A tuber is a short, thickened, fleshy portion of a plant which grows an underground stem.

Many interesting products come from stems. Granulated sugar is processed from the above-ground stems of sugar cane or the below-ground tuber of sugar beets. Maple sugar is obtained from the trunks of maple trees. Cinnamon comes from the bark of trees in the Cinnamomum genus.

Interest Approach – Engagement

  1. Draw a sketch of a plant on the board. Include the roots, leaves, and a flower. Leave the area for the stem blank and ask the students what is missing (stem).
  2. Ask them if they think a plant could live without its stem. Why or why not?
  3. Display the four Plant Cards and have them point out the stem. Remember to point out the actual potato in its picture as the stem.
  4. Tell your students that today they will be learning about plant stems.

Procedures

Activity 1: Function of Stems

  1. Demonstrate the function of the stem (vascular tubes that carry water and nutrients) by putting a stalk of celery with celery leaves in a jar of water with food coloring.
  2. Examine the celery in food coloring after a day or two to see how the stalk and leaves have changed color as a result of the xylem carrying the food coloring and water up the stem.
    • Note: As explained in the Background Agricultural Connections section of this lesson, celery is not scientifically classified as a stem. However, it is used in this step of the lesson because it is the most visual way to illustrate the function of the xylem and phloem.
  3. Discuss the functions of the stem as a whole:
    • Supports plants
    • Transports water, food, and nutrients throughout the plant
    • Connects the leaves to the roots
  4. Have students go outside and observe a variety of stems on campus. Clarify with students whether or not you want them to pick the stems that they will be observing or simply observe them without picking the plant.
  5. Discover and discuss that stems come in all shapes and sizes and that many are not edible.
  6. Give each student the Writing Worksheet and ask them to draw and write a paragraph about their favorite plant stem based on what they observed.
  7. Display their work in the classroom to use as a reference for the next activity.

Activity 2: Stems We Eat

  1. Ask your students to brainstorm types of edible stems that we eat. (asparagus is a good example. Broccoli and cauliflower also have a stem below the floret) Give clues or show pictures as needed.
  2. Teach your students that there are actually two kinds of stems. Some grow above ground and other types of stems grow below ground. They are called tubers.
  3. For more understanding, read the book Tops and Bottoms written by Janet Stevens. If the school library does not have a copy, a read aloud can be used online. Tell the students that this book is about a rabbit and a bear who decided to grow plants in a vegetable garden.
  4. During the reading, stop and ask the students to identify the stems of several plants and determine whether it is above or below the surface of the soil.
  5. At the conclusion of the book, ask the students:
    • "What are some plants that have good bottoms or stems to eat?" (white potatoes and sweet potatoes)
    • "What are some plants that have good tops or stems to eat?" (asparagus and broccoli)
    • "How is the hare similar to farmers who grow plants that we eat?" (The hare knows about the different parts of a plant and which parts we can eat. He also knows how they should be grown and harvested.)
    • "What important lesson can we learn from the Bear about harvesting vegetables to eat?" (The bear is not knowledgeable about plant parts and the book indicates his laziness. If farmers are lazy like the bear then they will harvest little food for us to eat.)
  6. Ask the students to read their sentences from the Writing Worksheet to a partner and call on each student to share one thing with the class that their partner wrote about their favorite plant stem.

Concept Elaboration and Evaluation

After conducting this activity, review and summarize the following key concepts:

  • Stems of certain plants are edible.
  • Stems come in all shapes and sizes.
  • Farmers must be knowledgeable about the plants they grow and harvest.
  • Eating stems such as asparagus, broccoli, and cauliflower are a healthy snack.

ELL Adaptations

  • This lesson incorporates hands-on activities. Kinesthetic learning events provide an excellent learning environment for the English learner.
  • Demonstrate how to set up the experiment prior to allowing students to carry out their own experiments. ELL students will benefit from observing the procedures before they get started.

Essential Links

Enriching Activities

  • Do a class survey and calculate the percentage of students who prefer each type of broccoli topping.

  • Read the book Sugarbush Spring by Martha Wilson Chall. In this book students will learn that the maple which makes the syrup for their pancakes is collected from the trunk (stem) of a maple tree.

  • Stem potluck: In advance, ask students to bring tasty toppings to class. Examples include peanut butter, cheeses, hummus, dressing, and more. Provide stems such as asparagus, broccoli, or cauliflower for students to taste along with their toppings. Review with students by pointing out which portion of the broccoli or cauliflower is the stem. Discuss food allergies and wash hands before this activity. Next, make a bar-graph on the board that shows which toppings were most popular among the students.

Suggested Companion Resources

Agricultural Literacy Outcomes

Culture, Society, Economy & Geography

  • Discuss what a farmer does (T5.K-2.a)

Plants and Animals for Food, Fiber & Energy

  • Identify examples of feed/food products eaten by animals and people (T2.K-2.c)

Education Content Standards

Within HEALTH

Health Standard 7: Demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.

  • 7.2.1
    7.2.1
    Demonstrate healthy practices and behaviors to maintain or improve personal health.

Within SCIENCE

2-LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

  • 2-LS4-1
    2-LS4-1
    Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

State specific Standards and Objectives

State Standards for UT

Common Core Connections

Reading: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4
    Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7
    Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1
    Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

Language: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.6
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.6
    Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

 

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